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1,040 paged book






Degree anatomy:
A textbook of pure and applied anatomy for advanced students





Oluwole Ogunranti
Visiting Professor of Anatomy
Imperial College London and
Member Wolfson College, Cambridge, UK


Electronic School of Medicine [ESM] Publications
www.oluwoleogunranti.com ©2012

Electronic School of Medicine Publications

London Lagos Abuja Ibadan Jos


ISBN 978-2756-85-7

© ESM Publications 2012

No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, nor transmitted, nor translated into a machine language without the written permission the publisher.

Printed in Nigeria by



Introduction - History of Anatomy
Chapter 1 - Anatomical Frontiers of Medicine


Chapter 2 - The Origin of Life
Chapter 3 - Form and function in Life
Chapter 4 - Natural Selection and Darwinism
Chapter 5 - The Geological Periods
Chapter 6 - Vertebrate Evolution
Chapter 7 - Mammalogy
Chapter 8 - Primate Evolution
Chapter 9 - Man
Chapter 10 - Human & Comparative Anatomy
Chapter 11 - Paleoanthropology
Chapter 12 - Human Evolution
Chapter 13 - Anthropometry
Chapter 14 - Human Growth & Maturation
Chapter 15 - Human Population Genetics
Chapter 16 - General Anthropology for Anatomists


Chapter 17 - Tissue processing for light microscopy
Chapter 18 - Theory of light microscopy
Chapter 19 - Electron Microscopy
Chapter 20 - Tissue Culture Techniques
Chapter 21 - Gross Embalming Techniques
Chapter 22 - Imaging Anatomy
Chapter 23 - Endoscopic Anatomy
Chapter 24 - Time Lapse Photography
Chapter 25 - Neuroanatomical Techniques
Chapter 26 - Experimental Surgery


Chapter 27 - Cell Membrane Structure
Chapter 28 - Cellular Organelle and Ultrastructure
Chapter 29 - Cellular Biophysics
Chapter 30 - Histochemical Tissue Processing
Chapter 31 - Carbohydrates
Chapter 32 - P r o t e i n
Chapter 33 - Lipids
Chapter 34 - Nucleic Acids
Chapter 35 - Pigments and Minerals
Chapter 36 - Enzyme Histochemistry
Chapter 37 - Quantitative Histochemistry
Chapter 38 - Ultra Histochemistry
Chapter 39 - Immunohistochemistry
Chapter 40 - Biogenic Amines
Chapter 41 - Brain-gut Peptides
Chapter 42 - Special Cytology
Chapter 43 - Cellular Endocrinology
Chapter 44 - Invertebrate Endocrinology


Chapter 45 - Early pregnancy Science (Medicine)
Chapter 46 - Experimental Embryology
Chapter 47 - Control Factors in Embryology – Pattern Formation
Chapter 48 - Developmental Genetics
Chapter 49 - Cloning


Chapter 50 - Teratology
Chapter 51 - Neuronal ultrastructure
Chapter 52 - Comparative anatomy of vertebrate brain
Chapter 53 - Paraneurology


Chapter 54 - APUD
Chapter 55 - Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system
Chapter 56 - The diffuse neuroendocrine system
Chapter 57 - Biology of Human Behaviour
Chapter 58 - Anatomy of gastric acid secretion
Chapter 59 - Cytopharmacology
Chapter 60 - Experimental surgical models/surgical anatomy
Chapter 61 - Clinical diagnostic Histochemistry
Chapter 62 - Clinical diagnostic electron microscopy
Chapter 63 - Dermatoglyphics
Chapter 64 - Transplantology


At long last this book is now ready for use by the degree Anatomy student. It is written for the degree student who may be a B.Med. Sc. (Anatomy) or B.Sc. Anatomy student. The book can also be of use as an introductory text for the postgraduate student in Anatomy. The content is base on the B. Med. Sc. Anatomy curriculum of the University of Port Harcourt. I thank all those who contributed in making the book a reality. First to the numerous experts whom I have had to rely on for information. I am not an expert in any of the fields covered by this book. I have therefore had to rely on information from the following famous texts – Pott’s Invertebrates, Young’s Life of vertebrates, Troyer’s Histochemistry, Bancroft’s Histochemisty, Lopukhin’s Experimental surgery, and Gray’s Anatomy. More than all these I am grateful to all those who sent me reprints (Professor S Pearse and Fujita and others) and advise (Professor Fujita of Niigata University, and Professor Marjorossy of Enugu).

The reader will find the book up-to date in most of the aspects discussed. Since information is changing very fast now in the anatomical frontiers of Medicine it is hoped that this book will be revised very often. I thank all my friends for their encouragement.

Wole Ogunranti
Port Harcourt
October, 1985


Anatomy has changed considerably since 1985. It was about that same time that the United Kingdom, the leader in medical education in the entire world, changed its medical education program as it affects basic medical sciences considerably so much so that clinical teachers began to teach basic medical sciences, including anatomy. Today we see the effect on the subject which began with promise in the 16th century and has changed the entire world of modern medicine. It separated from surgery with great promise in 1900 but this was soon reversed 80 years later. It is now struggling for its separate existence once again (see www.oluwoleogunranti.com/isaha.htm).

It has not been the same in many other countries and in most African countries; anatomy still holds its own as a major subject in medicine and the training of anatomists has increased to cater for the next generation. The other important aspect is in keeping dissection of cadavers in most developing countries as opposed to some developed ones where it has disappeared. It is hoped that the love of the subject will continue in developing countries because it is most convenient for them and therefore help those countries to contribute to the development of the entire world of medicine.

But most important is the need to train postgraduate anatomist who would take care of the future. That was the objective in 1985 when the first edition of this book was written. At the time, just as is the case today, no single textbook ever addressed the problem of postgraduate and graduate anatomy for would be specialists in the field. The book has fulfilled its objective and several new professors in anatomy have used the book as the basis of their initial training in Nigeria. Today we continue the objective by providing the world with another edition.Specialized subjects like recombinant DNA in anatomy and reproductive biology-embryology have been taken in detail in other books. One area that was baffling was the need to provide a balanced information on the origin of life and that of man without necessarily appearing unscientific and dogmatic. Information is therefore provided on what is known in science and what is not known in this edition so that the individual reader will have the opportunity of making up his/her own mind about the facts. The author thinks the modern language of evolution in biology is more akin to philosophy than science but he uses it nevertheless for this edition. This is a transition. In subsequent editions, this seeming philosophical rather than scientific language of biology will be permanently removed to provide pristine objectivity in the biology of man.

Oluwole Ogunranti
Imperial College London
21 July 2011




I am sincerely grateful to the Imperial College London Establishment that gave me the job and the environment for producing the second edition of this book between December 2010 to July 2011. I received encouragement and the enabling environment to concentrate on the revision of this text during this very exciting period.




Modern gross anatomy is studied by dissections. Other methods of study include X-ray and other forms of imaging such as ultrasonography, mammography, xerography, computer axial tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and positron emission studies. Studies in human anatomy also includes the use of positive or negative corrosion casts to outline the feature of organs or organ systems. Models have been used to understand human anatomical features for hundreds of years. Colored wax was one of the earliest. Today, we use plastic models, rubber, plasticine etc.

The first record of dissection of the human cadaver was that of Heraclitus (c.535-c.475 BC) who was one of the philosophical (double-aspect) monist who believed that all matter is made up of fire. He is said to have been the first to recognize the brain as the center of mental activity thereby demonstrating considerable advancement over his age and time. It is not certain whether Hippocrates (460-370 BC) the father of Medicine ever dissected any human cadaver. Aristotle (384-322 BC) dissected several animals, including embryos, but he did not dissect man.

It was Herophilus (c.304) who was court physician to Ptolemy II of Egypt who established the science of anatomy and officially dissected cadavers. He was the fist to distinguish nerves from veins and arteries. Claudius Galen (c.130-200 AD) is considered to be closer to modern science than any other ancient Greek. Galen had to rely on animal experimentation, dissection and vivisection, which gave him a lot of foresight about human biology, which he wanted so much to study. It was Galen’s anatomy that was used through out the middle ages, until the renaissance.

Ibn Sina or Avicenna (930-1037) was the only figure during the medieval ages who could be called an anatomist. He is well known for his study of the structure of the eye. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was the genius of the renaissance anatomy. He was a painter, artist, engineer, philosopher and scientist, to include anatomist. He started the dissection of cadaver at the renaissance and he was able to prove that male and female had the same number of ribs. It was actually Vesalius (1514-1565) who belonged to the Venetian school of Padua that revolutionized the study of modern anatomy through series of dissections. He challenged Galen and corrected many of his mistakes. After him, several anatomists now used the simple method of dissection to understand and appreciate the study of the structure of the human body, especially in relation to its function and its role in the environment One of the prominent anatomists of this era was William Harvey, A British anatomist/ physiologist who studied blood circulation. He found it necessary to supplement his dissection of the human body with experiments with live animals to determine the functions of various organs and tissues of the body. Other anatomists in the age of romanticism were

Julien Offroy de La Mettrie (1709-1751)

Giovanni-Batista Morgagni (1682-1771)

Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802)

Modern anatomy has changed since those previous ages. In those years, it was tied to surgery and anyone who wanted to be a surgeon must first serve apprenticeship as an anatomist. In 1900, anatomy parted ways with surgery and we now have a completely emancipated subject, which studies the structure for its own sake and wishes to understand function from the point of view of structure.



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